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英语毕业论文

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Abstract

Interview with the vampire ,published in 1976,is one of the most important representative works of Anne Rice .since it was published it has been considered as the Bible by vampires fans and researchers.This thesis aims at analyzing this novel in terms of vampires’character.

Interview with the vampire with vampiric perspective to describe those lives and feelings of alternative creature, overturned vampire traditional image of rigid stereotype ,and endowed vampire with rich inner and personality. using the description to the unreal world ,the novel expressed people’s loneliness and despair which resulted from uncontroling their destiny and produce in the real life . From vampire’s heart to explore the mystery of deep humanity reflects the way of thinking and living conditions and spiritual crux of realistic society, and reveals the realistic social vulnerable groups and the solitary heresy and self pursuit, including the care to marginal man and the query to mainstream culture.

Key words:interview with the vampire;Anne Rice;homosexuality;seeking;loneliness;philosophy about life and death

摘要

  安妮赖斯的代表作之一《夜访吸血鬼 》出版于1976年,自出版以来,一直被吸血鬼迷们极其研究者们奉为圣经。本文以《夜访吸血鬼》为文本,分析其中的吸血鬼个性特点。

《夜访吸血鬼》以吸血鬼的视角去描述那些另类生物的生活及感受,颠覆了吸血鬼僵化刻板的传统形象,赋予其丰富的内心和个性。小说借对非现实世界的描述来表达现实生活中人们因不能掌握自己的命运而产生的孤独和绝望。从吸血鬼的内心去发掘人性深处的奥秘,折射现实社会及身处其中的人们的思维方式、生存状况和精神症结的同时,反映了现实社会中的同性恋等“异端人群”的离群索居及对自我的追求,更包含了对边缘人群的关怀和主流文化的质疑。

关键词:《夜访吸血鬼》;安妮赖斯;同性恋;追求;孤独;生死哲学

前言

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Chapter one

1.1 HYPERLINK “/image/5202e5f2bc40d200b07ec5c1” o “查看图片” t “_blank” Brief introduction of the writer

Anne Rice ,one of major figures in contemporary popular literature ,is known as the crowned “mother of vampires”. she was born on October 4,1941,in new Orleans,America。her original name was Howard Alan O”Brien , when she the first day went to school she changed the name with Anne. After her mother , Catherine O”Brien died in 1956, her father married again,and because of work they moved to Richardson,Texas. in the middle school of Richardson,Anne met her future partner ,Stan Rice.they got married on October 14 ,1961. After marriage they enrolled in San Francisco university together.In 1964,Anne Rice got the bachelor”s degree of political science and creation of San Francisco state university.her first short fiction was published in 1965.Seven years later ,she acquired the master”s degree of creation of the University of California.Before being famous,.she had done all kinds of jobs, such as waitress ,cooker , usherette and so on , her experiences are very abundant, which had laid a substantial basis for her writing.

Anne Rice started with her short novel,October4 ,1948,in 1965.Once with different pen names,she wrote many novels of different theme ,such as with the Anne Rampling writing Fled to the garden of Eden,in LuoKeLuo er writing works”beauty series” ,but the most famous is her vampire class .Since interview with the vampires was first published in1976,anne rice had totally written twenty-five books of vampire and witch , each book had become a super best-seller.Anne Rice is the backbone representative figure of contemporary vampire novels. She subverts people’s traditional view to the vampire,her works are famous for terrorist plots with vivid description.the novels’ subject is mostly under the historical background of solitude and self pursuit.characters in fiction are always isolated groups of realistic society or unrealistic society.

1.2Brief introduction of the work

Interview with theVampire, published in 1976,is one of the most important representative works of Anne Rice . Now it is still a best-seller in the world. In 1994,this novel was adapted for a move.

Interview with theVampire is an implicated rich fantasy novels,which permeates deep perspective to the human mind ideology.Anne Rice borrows the description of unreal world to display the truth of real world and dig the mysteries of deep humanity from vampires’ heart.

The novel is brought out the whole magic and psychedelic vampire culture ,which is the emotion , mode of thinking , executive function and so on, by the conversation between a radio journalist and vampire Louis.Annerice gives up the sence of gap between the vampires and reality in the work and uses the first person telling the story,in order to make it communicates directly with reader.and the vampires are the heroines in the vampires’works.

At beginning, vampire Louis was a man .when he regreted deeply for his brother’s died ,he met a vampire named Leicester,who changed louis into a vampire.and then louis began his vampire career.in endless time,louis experienced remorse, calm, betrayal,and at last he bravely faced his doomed lonely life.

Chapter two Analyzing from philosophical angle

死亡是每一个生命个体有限时间段的必然归宿,它是生命的终极。作为人类最古老、最富人文意蕴的文化现象之一,死亡与宗教、信仰、风俗、伦理、神话、思维、哲学、艺术等人类精神结构密切交融。它既综合了人类心灵最多样化最深刻的运动,又与人类的最根本的生存论和终极价值的信念与追求紧紧连结。人生是短暂的,故追求永生乃是人类存在于心底的真实想法,但又违背了所谓的伦理道德。所以一种永生的存在——吸血鬼就出现在人们的面前。

Death ,who is life”s ultimate,is the individual life limited time inevitable end; it . As human”s oldest and most rich humanistic connotation of cultural phenomena, death and one of religion, faith, customs, ethics, myths, thinking, philosophy and art human spiritual structure closely blends. It is integrated with the most diverse the human mind is the most profound sport, and with the human of the most fundamental theory of existence and the ultimate value of faith and pursue closely links. Life is short, so pursuit of life is the human existence in the heart bottom real thoughts, but also violated the so-called ethics. So the existence of an eternal life – the vampire appears in front of people.

2.1 Human nature of good and evil

In the west ,the primary written expression of good and evil often pestered with daily words,which express the appraisement,like good and bad, beautiful and ugly, love and hate, ups and downs, strong and weak and so on. 在西方,善恶的最初文字表达,经常与好坏、美丑、爱恨、喜悲、苦乐、强弱等表达日常褒贬的词语纠缠在一起。善恶所表达的,一是作为主体的人对客观外在事物包括他人的表现、行为及内在性质的感受与评价;二是作为主体的人的自我心境即主观心态,而且这两方面往往互为因果,互相影响;再者,这样的感受、评价、主观心态,既有出于本能、习惯、常理之类的认识,又有依据道德伦理原则与标准的价值评判,还经常夹杂着审美和真假。[22]

吸血鬼隐匿于暗夜中,因此,吸血鬼常与死亡、邪恶相联系。但与20世纪纯粹的恶魔小说不同的是,安妮·赖斯笔下的吸血鬼拥有许多人性。他们体验着意识的冲动,感受着孤独、痛苦、罪恶感,富有同情心、愤怒、厌倦、悲伤甚至更多。他们寻求爱和友谊,有些吸血鬼还寻求用自己的超自然能力行善的途径。赖斯不是把吸血鬼定位为来自地狱的魔鬼和纯粹的邪恶,而是把他们视为“行进在另一方向的天使”. 如在小说中,路易举起手臂,食指向上指着,“就像一个天使要传授主的意旨”。[24] he raised his arm, first finger pointing heavenward as if he were an angel about to give the Word of the Lord.

安妮·赖斯对善恶的认识是多层次、多方位的。她用清醒的现实主义精神审视世界的矛盾性、复杂性,从而在吸血鬼的世界里建构起一个善恶模糊的世界。她借吸血鬼对人类社会善恶问题的质疑和挑战,体现了那个时代的困惑与知识分子、年轻一代对社会主流秩序的反叛,也代表着她及其时代对现有的道德、法律等规范准则的思考和怀疑。

2.2 生死挣扎

“To be,or not to be,that’s a question.”自人类有史以来 生与死始终作为一个终极性的问题摆在人类面前 ,无法逃避, 也无处可逃. 死作为生的对立面 ,是生者永远不可知的神秘区域 ,让人产生未可名之的恐惧感 .因此 ,由于潜意识的恐惧 ,追求永生成为人类心中一个永远的梦想 .吸血鬼这一永生形象就寄托了人类对永生的渴望和恐惧。

在《夜访吸血鬼》中,主人公路易变成吸血鬼的过程, 就是在生与死之间徘徊犹疑的过程 。因为弟弟的死亡 ,周围人们( 包括母亲和妹妹 )的误解,让路易生活在极度痛苦之中,丧失了活下去的勇气。但当莱斯特紧紧抓住他时,他却为了生而挣脱,“I thrashed against him wildly. I dug my boot into his chest and kicked him as fiercely as I could”。

 “我竭力。。。。”当吸血鬼莱斯特把他变成了一个吸血后,“I was dying as a human, yet completely alive as a vampire; and with my awakened senses, I had to preside over the death of my body with a certain discomfort and then, finally, fear.”通过这些我们可以发现吸血鬼虽然自身永远的不朽,但这种不朽似乎是一个不可改变的陷阱。

吸血鬼处于这样一个生与死的尴尬境地:他们既不是生也不是死,他们是死亡乔扮成的生命体,或者更像生与死在做着狰狞的鬼脸。[35]吸血鬼的生活貌似轻松潇洒,但毫无意义,这种残酷的命运围困着每一个吸血鬼。吸血鬼虽然长生不老,没有病痛死亡,但他们永远生活在黑暗中,不见天日;然而他们又是有一定思想和感情的,不会心甘情愿长此以往,可问题是他们无法改变这种状态。吸血鬼的恐惧在于他们永远锁在一个身体里,他们不能倾听生命,他们违反生命是有意义的真理。他们的痛苦不可能靠死亡来解脱,他们的心灵上承受着比人类更为痛苦的压力。从这种意义上说,吸血鬼是不幸的。

2.3生命意义的追求

在赖斯的笔下,死亡可以认为是对生命的毁灭,也可以认为能给生命带来肯定的意义。而吸血鬼对“死亡的困惑,实际上是意味着对生命的珍惜。”[48]当鲜血涌入吸血鬼的双唇,体验着他人的死亡的同时也是对自身生存的拷问。体验鲜血,体验一次死亡,便是体验一次对个体生命和存在的重新肯定。In rice pen, death can be considered for the destruction of the life, also can think can give life with certain significance. And of “death vampire confusion, is actually means to cherish life.” [48] when blood pouring into the vampire lips, experiencing the deaths of others at the same time is also for the existence of torture. Experience blood, experience a death, is a on individual experience of life and existence to affirmation.

安妮·赖斯笔下许多的吸血鬼,无论是在自身肉体的死亡中,还是在吸食人血带来的人类死亡中都体会到对生命的深深敬意。在他们眼中,闪现着微光的人类过往是珠玉般的神话,比任何信仰都来得更加珍贵。对最具有人性的路易而言,杀人不是一件普通的事。杀生在路易看来并不仅仅是简单地给人带来死亡,而是在感受另一个生命的消失。随着人类鲜血流入他的喉咙,这不仅是人类生命的消失,也是对他自身生命消失的感受。”Killing is no ordinary act,” said the vampire. “One doesn”t simply glut oneself on blood.” He shook his head. “It is the experience of another”s life for certain, and often the experience of the loss of that life through the blood, slowly. It is again and again the experience of that loss of my own life, which I experienced when I sucked the blood from Lestat”s wrist and felt his heart pound with my heart. It is again and again a celebration of that experience; because for vampires that is the ultimate experience.”(26)在人类的鲜血中,路易第一次对生命产生了崇敬的心理,不管他后来多么频繁地杀人,但他从没有对死亡大笑过。莱斯特则以一种欣赏的角度审视死亡:“以你现有的敏感,你会发现死亡无比美丽,生命只是在死亡的那一刻才有意义。”[49]叛逆不羁的莱斯特一直为自己所失去的凡人角色黯然神伤。Anne rice”s many vampire, whether in their physical death, or take person blood brings human death in all realized deeply respect for life. In their eyes, a light flashed past is a bead jade human mythology, than any faith all come more precious. For most with human Louis is concerned, did not kill an ordinary things. Killing seems not only in Louis is simply brings death but in feeling another life disappear. As the human blood flows into his throat, it is not only the human life disappeared, also by his own life disappeared feeling. In human blood, Louis first to life produces the reverence of psychology, no matter he later how frequently to kill, but he never laugh to death. Lester criterion with an appreciation of the perspectives of death: “with your existing sensitive, you will find that death was beauty, life is just in the moment of death makes sense.” [49] rebellious unruly leicester have been lost for your mortal role dejected.

在人类看来,死亡是个体存在的丧失,是生命的终结。因为死亡,一切都变得虚无,不可能再有任何世界的影像、痕迹和经验留存在我们的脑海深处,随之,整个价值世界也就瓦解了。于是,对“永生”的追求成为人类精神史和艺术史上一个持续而诱人的主题。作为永生代表的吸血鬼依赖着活人才能存在,具有超越生命,获得永生的能力,它是生命世界的顺理延续,反过来是对现实世界的肯定和维护,而不是对立,更不是摆脱。而吸血鬼的这种以死知生的价值观念,它直接就是对生命界限的超越,直接就是对于新生命、新世界的不断体悟。In human view, death is the loss of individual exists, it is the end of life. Because death, all becomes the emptiness, could not be any the images of the world, traces and experience in our brains retained, then, the whole value world will go broke down. Hence, the “eternal pursuit” became the human spirit history and history of a continuous and captivating theme. As living representative vampire depends on the living will exist and beyond its life and eternal life of ability, it is the world of life, and in turn is Daniel continue to real-world affirmation and maintenance, instead of opposites, more not away. While the vampire died to know the concept of value, born in life is it directly, directly is beyond boundaries for new life, new world of dao is constantly.

从哲学视角来看,赖斯正是借吸血鬼的生存状态表达个体的渺小与无奈。通过描述吸血鬼的心态来揭示现实社会中的人不能掌握自己的命运而深陷孤独和绝望的境地。小说运用幻想的手法,呈现给读者一个非现实世界,从形而上的层面上反映人性、生与死、人与社会的矛盾,具有超越具象的哲理意蕴,反映社会生活,影射社会现实。From philosophical Angle, rice just borrow vampire existence state of express individual small and helpless. Based on the description of the vampire mentality to reveal real-life person cannot control of your own destiny and deep loneliness and hopeless situation. Novel using fantasy gimmick, presented to the reader of a real world, from metaphysical level reflect human nature, life and death, people and society, the conflict has surmounted figurative philosophical implication, reflect social life, innuendo social reality.

Chapter three Analyzing from social angle

任何一部出色的文学作品都是因为它告诉人们更为深层的东西,关乎到人类和哲学的问题,从而具有了文化和意识形态上的价值。吸血鬼文学也不例外,吸血鬼是一个矛盾的集合体,它的矛盾正吻合了人类的某种矛盾的情感,从而成为影射人类社会现实的典型形象。吸血鬼形象虽然各不相同,但他们都不是一个单纯的邪恶的符号,而是贯注了情感和思想的灵异,其实这些思想情感都是人类的思想情感。因此说,这些形形色色的吸血鬼形象所演绎的不仅仅是鬼怪世界,更是人处于各种情形下的悲喜人生。从社会角度来看,《夜访吸血鬼》中吸血鬼形象的塑造反映了当代美国人对反社会情感的转移和宣泄,折射出现实社会中的弱势群体和“异端人群”的离群索居及对自我的追求,更是包含了对边缘人的关怀和主流文化的质疑。any a great literary works because it tells people more deep-seated things, about human and philosophical question, thus has the cultural and ideological value. The vampire literature is not exceptional also, the vampire is a contradiction aggregation of, its contradictions are identical human some contradiction of emotion, thus becomes the social reality of typical innuendo human image. The vampire image although each are not identical, but they are not a pure evil symbols, but absorbed in thought and sentiment alien, actually these feelings are human feelings. Therefore said, these mixed vampire image deductive is not only, more people in the world of ghosts various situations and vitality life. From the social perspective, the vampire the vampire image reflects the contemporary American for antisocial emotion transfer and anger, reflects the realistic social vulnerable groups in the crowd, “and” heresy solitary and self pursuit, but also includes marginals care and mainstream culture questioned.

3.1 homosexual

吸血鬼,自从这个名词首次登上历史舞台,就摆明了和宗教作对。无论是该隐的子孙也好,是恐怖的根源也罢,吸血鬼总归是异教罪恶堕落的象征。中世纪教会用吸血鬼来恐吓民众,教唆大家信仰纯洁的上帝——而基督教是不允许同性恋存在的。吸血鬼既然作为世间一切的反派,自然要背负世间所有的罪名。同性恋历来被文明社会视为反家庭和人性的变态行径,同性恋者也历来是不受尊重的弱势群体。艾滋病的爆发和流行,并在同性恋者中蔓延,更令西方主流意识视其为洪水猛兽。由于艾滋病与吸血鬼的传播方式类似,均以血液为媒介,使得同性恋关系为作品表现人类对吸血鬼的恐惧和厌恶提供了合适的符号。在欧洲社会,同性恋现象曾被视为异端而遭重刑,即使有所表现也是极为隐秘的,通过吸血鬼来有所寄托便是其手法之一。吸血鬼在中世纪就被打入异端文化的行列,在现代社会也继承这一传统,成为容纳边缘人群对抗现行社会法律道德的意象空间。从西方的原型上说,吸血鬼的文学意象从一开始就与同性恋有难分难解的纠缠。the vampire, since this noun first boarded the stage of history, he was the better-managed and religious against one another. Whether the sons of Cain, or is the root of terror or vampire is inherently pagan sin degenerate symbol. The medieval church to scare people with a vampire, instigates everybody faith pure god – and Christian is not allowed gay exist. The vampire since worldly all villain, as natural should bear all charges. Homosexuality is traditionally civilized society, family and human nature as against abnormal behavior, homosexuals in history is not respected disadvantaged groups. AIDS epidemic outbreaks and, and on homosexuals in spread, which makes the western mainstream awareness regard them as a flood beast. Due to the spread of HIV/AIDS and vampires be similarly, all with blood as the medium, make homosexual relations for work shows the fear of mankind to vampire disgust and provided a suitable symbols. In the European society, homosexuality once considered heretical by looters, even to show is also extremely secretive, through the vampire somewhat reposing is its one of the manipulations. The vampire in medieval was scored heresy culture ranks, in modern society also inherit the tradition, become accommodate marginalised against the current social legal moral image space. From a western prototype, says the vampire”s literary images from the start and gay has pitched entwine.

吸血鬼和同性恋者有很多相似的地方。首先都是稀有动物,数量很少。其次,身份都很隐蔽,不易被人发现;都有避世的原则,同性恋大多不想被凡人知道,而吸血鬼更是不想被人知道。再次,都喜欢夜间出没。到了晚间,同性恋酒吧、场所更是热闹非凡,而吸血鬼更是只有在晚间才行动。文学中的吸血鬼形象与同性恋的关系不仅仅表现在这种表面上的联系,更主要是吸血鬼的吸血方式引进了性爱领域,颠覆了传统人类社会对性爱形式与其价值观念的理解。The vampire and gay, have a lot in common. The first is the rare animals, few in number. Secondly, identity are very concealment, not easy to be found, All have bishi principle, gay mostly don”t want to be mortal know, and vampire also don”t want to be known. Again, like at night. At night, gay bars, place is very busy, but only in the evening just vampire is action. Literature of the vampire image and gay relationships lies not only in the surface contact, more important is sucking vampire way introduced sex field, overturned traditional human society on sex form and values of understanding.

在现代社会里,同性恋者处于社会的边缘,向来属于另类群体。社会的敌视也使同性恋者隐瞒自己的性倾向,与传说中的吸血鬼一样,成为“黑暗的孩子”。现代吸血鬼小说也沿袭了吸血鬼是同性恋意象。在安妮·赖斯的《夜访吸血鬼》中,吸血鬼暗指当代美国社会中的同性恋者。作品中路易欲作吸血鬼的原因之一便是迷惑于莱斯特的无穷魅力。初见莱斯特时,莱斯特躺在他身旁的石阶上,路易感觉他动作优雅亲昵,使他马上想起了情人相偎的情景,`Now listen to me, Louis,” he said, and he lay down beside me now on the steps, his movement so graceful and so personal that at once it made me thinkof a lover.夜色围绕着两个俊美的男子,周围是草丛、水塘、废弃的女神雕塑、月亮,每一个暧昧的动作同时也都带着野兽的凶残和贵族的优雅。主要人物之间也都有浓重的同性恋倾向:路易与莱斯特、阿尔芒之间,莱斯特与尼古拉斯、阿尔芒之间,都存在着情人般的依恋关系。贯穿于吸血鬼世界,纵横六千年,到处充斥着离经叛道德同性乱伦关系。In the modern society, the gay on the fringe of society, the always belong to alternative groups. Social hostility also make homosexual conceal their sexual orientation, and legend of the vampire as, become “dark” children.Modern vampire novels are also followed a vampire is gay imagery. In Anne rice of the vampire, vampire alluding to contemporary American society the gay. Writer hints to the parties to experience similar sex on-the-spot climax of feeling. Works to make vampire reasons of Louis is one of temptation in leicester infinite glamour. Initial Lester, Lester lying beside him stairs, Louis feels he moves, he immediately elegant intimacy reminds lover phase, and the situation deep-rooted between two people is sucking process was written with between lovers of sexual experience specimens. Night around two handsome man, is surrounded by grass and ponds, abandoned the goddess of the moon, the sculpture, every ambiguous action also carry the enormity of the beast and the nobility elegance. Main characters were also with thick between homosexual tendencies: Louis and leicester, armand between, Lester and Nicholas, armand between exist sweetheart”s between the attachment. Throughout the world, and vertical and horizontal vampire six thousand years, everywhere full heresy DE same-sex incest relationship.

赖斯不仅展现了吸血鬼丰富的情感世界,更重要的是她深入到吸血鬼的内心深处,来描述吸血鬼的存在状态,使其作品传达出这样一种信息:人类因为恐惧对吸血鬼产生的仇恨,使得人类自觉地回避他们所惧怕的对象;而吸血鬼也同样惧怕人类的报复。人类对他们的惧怕使吸血鬼在现实社会中无法得到认同感,于是在绝望中,他们对现实社会投以同等的冷漠和厌恶,从而导致了吸血鬼孤独的存在状态。通过对吸血鬼的内心世界及存在状态的探索,赖斯为吸血鬼赋予了新的象征意义:即吸血鬼代表着现实社会中受歧视和排挤的弱势群体。为了使其具有典型性,她将同性恋内容融入到作品中来。Rice is not only show the vampire abundant emotion world, more importantly she went deep into the vampire heart, to describe a vampire state of being, make its work conveys a kind of such information: human because of fear of vampire hate generation, make mankind consciously avoid their fears object, But the vampire also fear human revenge. Humans on their fear make vampire in the realistic society cannot get approval, then in despair, they threw equal to realistic social indifference and disgusted, causing a vampire lonely existence state. As armand said: “the vampire existence principle is beautiful and without regrets, with a broken heart lonely life”. [69] through the vampire”s inner world and existence state of exploration, rice for vampire endowed with new symbolism: namely vampire represent realistic society discriminated and exclude disadvantaged groups. In order to make its typical, she will gay content into the work.

西方主流意识对同性恋艾滋病患者的歧视和排斥,正是赖斯作品中对吸血鬼孤独的存在状态的真实写照,进而表达出作者对西方主流意识的质疑:哪一个更可怕?!在此质疑下,传统认识对吸血鬼的界定变得模糊。人类固然是吸血鬼的受害者,但他们完全有能力消灭吸血鬼。“吸血鬼们没有制造恐怖,他们仅仅只是恐怖的收集者……由于人类的压迫与排挤,吸血鬼们只能苟且于世间……也正因为人类统治着这个世界,吸血鬼才成为邪恶之物”。[70] Western mainstream awareness about homosexuality AIDS patients and discrimination is excluded, works of rice vampire lonely existence state of true portraiture, then expresses the author for western mainstream awareness to question: which one is more terrible? !On this question, the traditional definition of knowledge on the vampire blurs. Human is a vampire victims, but they fully capable of destroy a vampire. “Vampires didn”t production horror, they were merely terrorist collector… because of human oppression and exclude, vampires only seek in the earth… it is because human ruled the world, the vampire becomes evil thing”. [70]

暴力violence

建立于工业文明基础之上的现代西方物质文明,犹如一把双刃剑,一方面使社会的物质文明高度发展,另一方面,又给予以往的传统文化毁灭性的打击。现代社会的人,时时处在被物质文明普遍异化的状态之中,人们在物质面前充满了无能为力感和恐惧感。人已完全被物所支配。物质世界已抛弃了人类,人处在一个难以理解、无法把握和解释的陌生世界,人蜕变为物,世界变得荒诞、非理性,人类的生存也失去了意义。Established in industrial civilization on the basis of modern western material civilization, is a double-edged sword, on the one hand, make the society”s material civilization high development, on the other hand, and given that of traditional culture devastating blow. The modern society of person, always in by material civilization alienation state of being, people in the physical presence filled the helpless feeling and fear. Man has completely dominated by material objects. The material world has abandoned the human being, one is in a difficult to understand, unable to grasp and explain the strange new worlds, people into the content, the world has become myth, irrational, human survival also lost its meaning.因而,一种全面否定社会存在的文化思潮席卷西方整个社会。这一文化思潮将个人置于社会的对立面,以局外人、流亡者、精神贵族等角色对西方现代社会的价值观进行全面攻击。它反对的不仅仅是社会的某种具体现象,如专制体制、官僚政治、道德腐败等,而是“现代社会”这种组织形态本身。从此意义上看,反社会,特别是反物质文明的社会文化价值观,已不仅仅是一种社会思潮,而是已潜移默化成为一种社会意识,普遍存留于社会大众的心理意识之中。[66] Thus, a comprehensive negative social existence cultural trends across western society as a whole. This is a cultural ideological trend will an individual on social disapproval, to outsiders, exiles, spirit of noble character such as modern western society values thorough attack. It is not only social against some concrete phenomena, such as autocratic system, bureaucracy, moral corruption, but “modern society” this organization form itself. Since then the sense, the society, especially the antimatter civilized society cultural values, has not only is a kind of social ideological trend, but has become a subtle social consciousness, generally kept in public mental consciousness. [66]

因此,20世纪的现代文学家都把揭示社会物质文明必然导致社会人文精神的丧失作为一个重要的课题来研究,表现出他们对物质文明的抗拒和对人文精神的危机意识。通过小说中的人物,把恐怖与焦虑传递给读者,产生一种特殊的审美效果,恐怕是恐怖小说家最执着的写作信念。[67]通俗小说中的暴力、恐怖题材就是使人们心理深层的反社会情绪得到宣泄的最好途径。Therefore, the 20th century modern writers have revealed the social material civilization will inevitably lead to the loss of social humanistic spirit as an important topic to study, show them to the material civilization of resist and crisis consciousness of humanism. through the evil character in fiction, the terror and anxiety transfer to the reader, produce a kind of special aesthetic effect, be afraid is horror fiction writer most persistent belief of writing. 67] [popular fiction violence, terrorist themes to be to make people psychological deep anti-social emotions get catharsis best way.

恐怖小说的重要类型功能就是带给读者绝望的巅峰体验,吸血鬼题材为这一体验提供了绝好的内容。在吸血鬼小说中充满了青面獠牙、吸食人血、死亡、暴力等恐怖元素和氛围。无论是直接表现出血淋淋场面,还是着重展现恐怖临近时的压抑气氛,吸血鬼这一名称本身就预示了它的暴力本色。吸血鬼具有超越凡人的灵异能力,对这种能力的运用有时候甚至是滥用,正是吸血鬼吸引读者的地方。Horror novel important type function is to the reader of despair, the vampire theme peak experience this experience provides great content. The vampire novel was filled with QingMianLaoYa, suck blood, death, violence, etc terrorist elements and atmosphere. Whether direct show bloody scene, still emphatically the depression when the terrorist near show atmosphere, vampire this name itself presupposes its violent ecru. The vampire, beyond its mortal alien ability, to this kind of ability of using sometimes even abuse, it is a vampire attract readers place.

在赖斯的吸血鬼系列小说中,暴力不是简单为了暴力而暴力,暴力带来的是死亡和痛楚,展现的是对最心爱、最美好事物毁灭的悲剧美,体现了悲剧那种震撼人心的力量。吸血鬼作为具有神明一样能力同时又具有人类思想情感的一种灵异,代替我们在文本上宣泄现代人压抑在潜意识里的欲望,经历我们害怕但又渴望经历的种种绝望、痛苦处境。In rice vampire series fiction, the violence is not simple to violence and violence, and violent brings death and pain, presently is the most beloved, the most beautiful things tragic beauty of destruction, which reflects the tragedy that shatter. The vampire as a deity as ability but also has a human thoughts and feelings of a kind of psychics, instead of us in the text vent to modern depressive subconsciously desire, experience we fear but desire to experience all kinds of despair, pain situation.从某一些角度上说,吸血鬼作品让读者看到了现实生活中无法看到的东西,让读者在幻想中实现了某种心理需求,或者说让读者在内心产生了共鸣。这样,一方面现代人在现实中被压抑的欲望得到释放,另一方面又不必自己承担这种后果,恐怖和痛苦便转化成了快感。赖斯的吸血鬼系列小说将我们文化中力图隐藏和掩饰的东西,以另一种隐晦的方式演示出来,使我们的情感和心理症结有了一个张扬和释放的空间,使紧张、暴烈的情感在虚拟情境中得到释放,归于安宁和平静。From some sense, vampire works give readers saw the real life can”t see a thing, let the reader in fantasy realized some psychological needs, or let the reader in the heart up resonance. So, on the one hand, modern people in reality are repressed desire release, on the other hand, need not bear the consequences, the fear and pain into pleasure. Rice vampire series novel will be in our culture tries to hide and conceal things, take another obscure way demo come out, make our emotional and psychological crux had a publicity and release of space, make tense, and violent emotions in virtual situation in release, to peace and quiet.

3.3追求

“寻求” 是一个古老的原型母题. 神话故事中有一个重要类型: 追求圣物。

 如圣杯、 金羊毛、 生命之水。

 T.S.艾略特的《荒原》就运用了这些神话, 但丁的《 神曲 》、歌德的 《浮士德》、 班扬的 《天路历程》, 都是 “寻求” 模式最经典的作品。”Seek” is an ancient prototype motif. Fairy stories have an important type: to pursue the holy things. As the holy grail, gold wool, the water of life. T.S. Eliot”s the wasteland resounding that applied these myths, Dante of the divine comedy,, Goethe”s Faust, class Yang pilgrim”s progress, is “seeking” model most classic works.

《夜访吸血鬼 》首先是吸血鬼路易对自身身份的追寻,那种我从哪里来,我是谁,我将往何处去的存在主义追寻始终贯穿小说。而作者也借此特殊人群的遭遇将一些人们习以为常 、不再细究的东西重新摆在读者面前。弥漫全篇的是追寻、失望、怀疑和挑战。路易始终徘徊在人与吸血鬼两界之间,他始终没有泯灭人的最初的良知,使他不愿成为嗜血的吸血鬼,所以宁愿捐弃华屋奴婢,以鼠血为生,自我放逐。内心始终为 “是人还是吸血鬼 ”这样一个存在主义困惑所拷问,煎熬着。The vampire first is a vampire Louis of one”s own identity quest, that where I came from and who I am, I will where existentialism pursue throughout novels. And the author also take special crowd encounter some people habitually, no longer tediocrity things again before the reader front: who are we? Where you are from? What is the significance of the world? The world would there stand or fall of good and evil points? Diffuse throughout is seeking, disappointment, doubts and challenges. Louis always wander in two worlds between man and the vampire, he never deaden the human initial conscience, so that he did not want to become a vampire bloodthirsty, so would rather HuaWu bygone men-servants and women-servants under living in rat blood, self-imposed exile. Heart is always “is people or vampire” such a existentialism confused by torture, suffering.

“世界永远在变化, 但吸血鬼不会”, 小克罗蒂亚最终不甘沦为莱斯特的玩物 ,厌倦了日复一日华贵但平乏的生活 ,她渴望长大,渴望独立,渴望成为一个真正的女人 ,并由此转而质疑自己的本体 。”The world forever changing, but the vampire not”, the small gram rorty and eventually unwilling to degenerate into Lester”s plaything, tired of day after day showily but smooth lack of life, she is eager to grow, want independence, eager to be a real woman, and thus turn doubt their ontology.最终她以“ 弑父”的形式 (杀死莱斯特 )试图解脱 ,并与路易一起离开新奥尔良 ,踏上了寻根之旅 。埃及的金字塔 、希腊的巴台农神庙…. 然而这些文明俱已凋零 ,最终他们来到旧大陆的文化中心 –巴黎,寻根未果 ,世间已过数百年。She ends patricide described form (to kill leicester) trying to liberation, and leave with New Orleans, and Louis onto the roots of the trip. The pyramids in Egypt, Greece the Parthenon… . However these civilizations already discarded, finally they all come to old world cultural center – Paris, roots, the world has blocked autopay hundred years.

在巴黎,他们仿佛找到了同类,然而他们错了。吸血鬼剧场上演的血腥的“血祭少女”场面,让路易不寒而栗。而小克罗蒂亚则被复活的莱斯特伙同剧院的吸血鬼把她在烈日下灼为灰烬。路易亦纵火烧死了其他吸血鬼,这不只是复仇,也是他捐弃吸血鬼身份的象征,随后他又拒绝了阿蒙作为同伴的邀请,因为他身上还有不可消逝的人性有爱,有悔恨。至此,路易再也没有同类,他既不容于吸血鬼界,又无法改变吸血鬼的身份,他高贵而孤独,为两界所放逐,忍受着存在的绝望。In Paris, like they found similar, but they are wrong. The vampire theatre”s bloodiest “bloody sacrifices maiden” scene, let Louis chill. While the small gram rorty and was raised to Lester colluding with theatre vampire put her in the hot sun burn to ashes. Louis also arson killed other vampire, it”s not only revenge, and also his bygone vampire identity is indicative, then he again refused the invitation of amon as companion, because he was also not elapse of human love, regret. So far, Louis no similar, he is not in the vampire border, and cannot change the vampire”s identity, his noble and lonely, for two circles banish, endure the existence of despair.

Chapter4从心理角度分析

在安妮·赖斯的吸血鬼小说系列中,作者以一种女性独有的细腻笔触,描绘着吸血鬼内心尴尬凄惨的世界,并深刻剖析吸血鬼作为特异种族的独特世界观。从某种意义上说,《夜访吸血鬼》是一部关于吸血鬼的心理小说。通过小说我们不仅可以了解到吸血鬼的心理,同时还可以体会到作者在写小说时的心理状况。In Anne rice vampire series of novels, the authors in a female unique exquisite brushworks, drawing the vampire inner world and embarrassing miserable deeply analyze the vampire as specific race”s unique view of the world. In a sense, the vampire is a story about a vampire”s psychological novels. Through the novel we not only can understand the vampire”s psychology, also can be experienced when writing a novel writer in the psychological situation.

4.1孤独

4.2悲观

《夜访吸血鬼》诞生于赖斯经历丧女之痛这一人生悲剧之后,在这部作品中,她将自己的感情和性情投射在路易的身上,如悲观、忧郁。事实上,在写作《夜访吸血鬼》过程中,赖斯似乎是在处理她在日常生活中不得不压抑的情感状态。她对无意识欲望的压抑给吸血鬼形象的塑造产生巨大的影响。而这一影响是通过升华和投射两种方式来实现的。The vampire was born in rice experience the pain of the bereaved female life after the tragedy, in this work, she will of their own feelings and temperament is projected on the body, such as Louis pessimistic, melancholy. In fact, in writing the vampire process, rice seems to be in dealing with her in daily life have to suppress the emotional state. She of unconscious desire of depressive to vampire image produced great impact. And this is the im

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