最新消息:本站百度网盘下载提取码没有特别说明,均为:1111

交通运输交通运输科技英语

实用资料 faha 146浏览 0评论

交通运输交通运输科技英语

第一讲

1. contract system tested in all railway

operations

The contract system will be practiced in all operations

of the Ministry of Railways-transport, capital construction

and technological upgrading, ministry officials told Xinhua

recently.

The Guangzhou Railway Administration has been chosen to

experiment with ways of implementing with ways of

implementing the system throughout, the officials said.

The contract system is necessary because since April

1986, the State has ceased to allocate funds to the

ministry. Instead, it collects taxes from the ministry,

which can use its own profits to develop its own

operations, the officials said.

“That means we have to depend exclusively on ourselves

and that´s why we use the contract system to stimulate

workers initiative for higher turnovers.” One official

said.

Although the contract system was practiced last year only

in its transport sector, the ministry was able to handle

3.7 per cent more cargo than in 1985.

In the first half of this year, the total volume of cargo

and passenger transport was up 2.4 and 6.5 per cent over

the same 1985 period, respectively, the officials reported.

Meanwhile, a feeder railway funded by famers in a village

in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, is expected to open to

traffic in October, according to the overseas edition of

People´s Daily.

Farmers in Xinhua village raised 2 million yuan(about

$540,000) to build a 600-metre feeder railway line to speed

up transport between urban and rural areas. (Xinhua)

Words and Expressions

Contract /´kɑn‚trækt/ n. 承包;契

约,合同

Contract system 承包制,大包干

Administration /æd‚mini´streʃǝ n/ ǝ

n.局;管理,经营

Experiment /ik´spɛrǝ mǝ nt/

n.&v.i.试验

To……with…… 试验……

To……upon……用…… 作实验

Implement /´implǝ mǝ nt/ v.t.实现

,落实

Thoughout prep.在整个……期

间;全…… ,……到处

´ adv.彻底地,全部

Cease /sis/ v.t.停止

Allocate /´ælǝ ‚ket/ v.t.分

配,拨给

Fund /fΛnd/ n.经费,资金

Tax /tæks/ n.税;税款

Profit /´prɑfit/ n.利润,赢利

;利益

Exclusively /ik´sklusivli/

adv.仅仅,只有;独占地

Stimulate /´stimjǝ ‚let/ v.t.

激励,刺激

Initiative /i´niʃǝ tiv/ n.首创

精神,主动性,积极性

Turnover / /´tǝn‚ovǝ/ n.营业额

,产值

Sector /´sɛktǝ, -‚tȝr/ n.扇

形;地段,区域;方面

Feeder /´fidǝ/ n.铁路支线;加

料漏斗

2. East railways to be upgraded

Railway lines in East China will be improved with an

investment of 7 billion yuan (about $1.89 billion), the

overseas edition of People´s Daily reported on Thursday.

The project involves 1.660 kilometers of railways, with

470 kilometers of new lines to be built, 510 kilometers to

be electrified and 680 kilometers double-tracked.

According to Zhou Congqing, the official in charge of the

project, more than 3,300hectares of land will be

requisitioned and many dwellings relocated.

Technicians are working on an engineering plan, and the

whole project is expected to be completed in1990.

Words and Expressions

Upgrade /´Λp‚ɡred/ Λ v.t.加强

;使升级,改良

In charge of 负责……;主管……

Hectare /´hɛk‚tɛr/ n.公顷

Requisition /‚rɛkwi´ziʃǝ n/ n.

征用

Dwelling /´dwɛliŋ/ n.住房

Relocate /ri´loket/ v.t.搬迁

3. Rail capacity doubles

Each kilometers of railway in China carried 596.9 billion

tons of freight in the first six months of this year on

average, double that in1978.

Officials of the Railways Ministry said that the present

structure can hardly meet the needs of the developing

economy.

The ministry is now concentrating on expanding the

handling capacity of the existing railroads, while

constructing or upgrading new lines.

Among the 38 marshalling yards in China,28 have increased

the number of trains they send out every day by 10 to 30

per cent. The yards sent out 38,000 trains every day last

year, 15 per cent more than in the previous year.

Since April, the number of passenger and freight trains

has increased by 22 per cent and 20 per cent, respectively,

compared to 1978. Now passenger trains are capable of

transporting three million people a day.

The project to add a double-track along the line between

Hengyang in Hunan Province and Guangzhou is nearly

complete. And the project of expanding the railway network

(Xinhua)

Words and Expressions

Freight /fret/ n.货物

Average /´ævǝ riȝ, ´ævriȝ/ v n.

平均,均值

On average 按均值计算,平均

Marshalling/´mɑ:ʃǝ liŋ/ 排列,

整理,编组

Marshalling yard 编组场

To send……out 发出,寄出,放出

ŋ

Improving railway operations

New trends

By Dr. techn., Prof. E.A. SOTNIKOV,

All-Union Railway Scientific Research Institute, Ministry

of Railways of the USSR

SUMMARY

The Soviet Railways handle 52 per cent of the world´s

railway freight turn-over although they account only of

about 11 per cent of their total mileage. This determines

an extremely high traffic density of the lines exceeding 6

to 10 times and even more, similar values of the railways

of technically advanced countries.

In order to meet the requirements for handling constantly

growing volumes of traffic, apart from improving railway

equipment, reinforcing the tracks and raising the rolling

stock carrying capacities, the operational procedure has to

perfected as well, it has to attaining this overall goal is

the intensification of the utilization of the existing

technical means. In this report new trends improving

railway operations are discussed.

第二讲

1 、Train Scheduling

The train schedule is the basis for managing train

traffic. It integrates the activities of all railway

services. Observing exactly the technological procedures

laid down for yards and stations, for locomotive and wagon

shops, for track, signaling and communication facilities as

well as for other railway bodies is a vital necessity for

trains being operated strictly to the schedule.

In order to keep the dispatchers staff informed on the

train situation data provided through the automatic traffic

control systems of the various railway regions is used.

Data on the availability of trains and locomotives at each

of the stations and at the classification yards of the

given route is submitted; to the dispatchers staff of the

upper control echelon in 3 hours intervals, to the

dispatchers staff of the railway region headquarters and of

the various sections on a continuous basis as the status at

the stations and yards changes.

This data is also taken into consideration at the railway

region border stations where the wagons are being

transferred from one railway region to the other. When

necessary, the data is used at other stations as well.

This makes it possible to monitor train traffic all along

the route, to make timely calculations with regard to

assigning locomotives to trains to reduce to the minimum

delays of trains waiting for motive power and to raise the

level of running trains strictly to the schedule.

The improvement of train operations requires further

development of the dispatcher control system through

further automating and centralizing the management of train

traffic. With regard to improving train operation the

following major principles have to be observed.

1. The activity of the train dispatchers which is at the

moment primarily concentrated at keeping records of the

train operations with a certain delay with regard to the

actual situation should pass over to a strategy of advanced

management using train operation forecast and of applying

optimized algorithms for wording out operational plans

covering foreseeable periods of future activities.

2. A continuous automated monitoring of possible

handicaps has to be introduced. This will enable the train

dispatchers staff by using the man-machine dialog mode of

operation to consider within several minutes a number of

managerial alternatives to choose the most effectives of

them to prevent minor handicaps form developing into major

traffic problems.

3. The supply of information to the dispatchers staff has

to be automated using specific facilities developed for the

purpose, as well as data provided by the existing automated

operations management system. Presently the train

dispatchers spend 30 to 40% of their working time to

acquire this information. This will also make it possible

to automate accounting activity of train operations.

4. Based on using automated information systems and on

introducing up-to-date control equipment the routes covered

by the dispatchers at the sectional, regional and

ministerial levels should be extended, and traffic control

over long routes should be integrated.

5. Centralizing train dispatching control, setting up of

big dispatching centers equipped with modern means of

communication, computers and with automated consoles for

the dispatchers is of major importance. Such a control

console, for a sectional train dispatcher, for instance,

should consist of:

a multi-sectional panel with a colored presentation

of the section track lay-out or with the presentation of

the entire route indicating train numbers as well as other

data supplied by the computer;

a graphical display to keep the planned schedule;

an alphabetical display for the train dispatcher to

keep a dialog with the computer;

a printer for an automated record keeping of the

operation;

of a graph-plotting display for drawing a graph of

the actual train operation.

The introduction of new methods aimed at running the

trains strictly to the schedule will result in an overall

improvement of train operations.

Words and Expressions

Summary /´sΛmǝ ri/ n.摘要

Freight turn-over 货物周转量

To account of (数量上)占

……

Mileage /´mailiȝ/ n.里程

Traffic density 运输密度

Reinforce /‚riin´fȝrs, –

´fors/ v.t.加强

Rolling stock 机车车辆(有时

专指车辆)

Rationalize /´ræʃǝ nǝ ‚laiz/ a

v.t.使合理化

Utilization /‚jutilai´zeʃǝ

n/ n.利用

Means /mi:nz/ n.方法,手段;

工具,设备

Train scheduling 铺画列车运行

Integrate /´inti‚ɡret/ v.t.

把……连接成一个整体

Railway service 铁路业务;铁

路部门

Observe /ǝ b´zǝv/ v.t.观察,

遵守

To lay down 放下,使……躺下

,铺设,规定,制定

Vital /´vaitl/ adj.非常的,

至关紧要的

Dispatcher /dis´pætʃǝ/ n.列

车调度员

To keep informed on 随时向

……报告

To submit to 向……提出……;

把……提请……批准

Echelon /´ɛʃǝ ‚lɑn/ 梯队,级

Dispatches staff of

Upper control echelon 上级调

度人员

Border station 分界站

To keep a record of 把……记

载下来

Algorithm /´ælɡǝ ‚riðǝ

m/ n.算法

Handicap /´hændi‚kæp/ n.不利

条件,障碍,困难

Man-machine dialog modle 人机

对话方式

Accounting activcity 统计工作

Up-to-date adj.现代化的,最

新式的

Console /kǝ n´sol/ n.控制台

Multi-sectional panel 多个区

间的显示盘

Presentation/‚prɛzǝ n´teʃǝ n,prizǝ n-

/ n.显示的图像

第三讲

2.Increasing the weights and speeds of trains

Increasing the weights and speeds of trains is a major

factor in handling the constantly growing volume of traffic

.A variety of ways and means are used to raise the tonnage

and the length of trains.

First of all the length of the exisiting tracks must be

used to the full. With this in mind comprehensive measures

of the undertaken at present to raise the static weights of

the wagons by increasing the net weight of the commodity

being forwarded .The permissive axle load of the wagons has

been raised, a good share of bulky goods are forwarded in 

disassembled status, the most rational way are use to

accommodate the good in the wagons ,the outer dimensions

set for the rolling stock at a given region are applied

since at use some extra space for loading cargo ,etc.

Making proper use some each and every meter of the

tracks is of substantial importance too. Applying computer

techniques in handling traffic made it possible to take

into account the length of each individual wagon rather

than of the types of wagons which was common practice

before. As a result one or two wagons were added to every

train. Likewise the length of each individual station

and/or yard track is taken into consideration: that

made it possible to make up trains that are longer than the

set standard.

In case when the weight and the length of trains are

limited by the traction capacities of locomotives,

alternative standards are being introduced with regard to

the weights of trains. To handle trains with weights

exceeding the standard double locomotive traction, or

pusher locomotives are used on part of the route.

Often the length of the train is limited by the length of

station tracks rather than by limited tractive capacities

of the locomotives.On a number of railways trains are run

which are 20 to 25% longer than the station tracks can

accomodate. Also superlong trains are run on special

schedules that have been worked out in such a way that they

do not interfere with the presently of the other trains .15

to 20% of the trains presently operated on the main lines

exceed the standard length .

On high traffic density lines station and/or yard

tracks are being extended to provide for the operation of

long trains. As additional extended station tracks

are put into operation the number of long trains run on

special schedules is increased respectively.

The handling of jointed trains, that is doubled-up and

trippled-up trains up to 16000 tons heavy ,is of special

importance .Some of those trains even exceed that weight

.On April 18,1984,to quote one example , a 30220 ton train

4668 meters long was run over a distance of 1130 km from

the Ekibastus station to the Tobol station .

By raising the tonnage and the length of trains the

throughput capacity of lines is enhanced substantially .It

also makes it possible to allocate the time needed for

track maintenance and to cut down the operational

expenditures. Part of the system will be up-graded to

ensure the operation of jointed trains.

Long term measures are undertaken to raise the tonnage of

trains .Extending station tracks along certain axes,

putting 6-axe wagons into operation on a wide scale –those

are measures that should be mentioned first .The

utilization of 8-axle wagons will raise the per-meter of

load of the tracks up to 9.5-10.5 tons. Though this will be

attained only if the outer dimensions set for the rolling

stock is fully used by the industry when building the

wagons.

Raising the per meter load of the tracks will result in

increasing the weight of standard 850metres long trains up

to 8000 tons and even up to 10000 tons if the station

tracks are extended to 1050 meter.

Passenger trains are made longer as well. For suburban

traffic ,trains are put into operation consisting of 12

coaches ,and on some directions doubled-up trains

consisting of 24 or 32 sleeping cars are planned to be

introduced .This will make it possible to handle the

growing volume of passenger train traffic.

Speeds of passenger trains are growing too .A high speed

train has been put into operation on the Moscow to

Leningrad line .Speeds of trains are being raised on other

lines as well, first of all on international lines .Since

in the USSR passenger and freight trains are run on the

same tracks it is important to raise the speeds of

both passenger and goods trains.

Introducing roller bearing axle-boxes on a larger scale

will contribute a great deal to an early attaining of this

objective.

Words and Expressions

the full 充分地 ,完全地

with……in 考虑到

comprehensive /‚kɑmpri´hɛnsiv/ adj.理解

的,综合的

comprehensive measures 综合措施

undertake /‚Λndǝ´tek/ v.t.承担,着手,

从事

static /´stætik/ adj.静态的,静止的

static weight 静载重

net /nɛt/ adj. 纯净的

net weight 净重

commodity /kǝ ´mɑditi/ n. 商品,货物

forward /´fȝrwǝ d/ adj. 向前的;v.t

促进;发送 permissive /pǝ´misiv/ adj. 允许的

axle load /´æksǝ l,´æksl/ 轴重

wagon /´wæɡǝ n/ n. 货车

share /ʃɛr/ n. 份额,部分

a good share of …… 大部分……

bulky /´bΛlki /adj. 体积大的

bulky goods 笨重货物

disassemble /‚disǝ ´sɛmbǝ l/ v.t. 分散,拆散

accommodate /ǝ ´kɑmǝ ‚det/ v.t. 供应,供给

substantial sǝ b´stænʃǝ l/ adj. 实

际的,重大的 likewise /´laik‚waiz/ adv.

同样地

double locomotive traction 双机牵引

pusher locomotive 补机

superlong train 超长列车

doubled-up train 双列组合列车

trippled-up train 三列组合列车

throughput /´θru‚put/ n. 生产量;通过量

thoughput capacity 通过能力

enhance /ɛn´hæns/ v.t. 提高

expenditure /ik´spɛndǝ tʃǝ/ n. 交出,费用

Note

Applying computer techniques in handling traffic made

it possible to take into account the length of each

individual wagon rather than of the types of wagons which

was common practive before.

(运用计算

转载请注明:蜚海资料 » 交通运输交通运输科技英语

发表我的评论
取消评论
表情

Hi,您需要填写昵称和邮箱!

  • 昵称 (必填)
  • 邮箱 (必填)
  • 网址