1. contract system tested in all railway
The contract system will be practiced in all operations
of the Ministry of Railways-transport, capital construction
and technological upgrading, ministry officials told Xinhua
The Guangzhou Railway Administration has been chosen to
experiment with ways of implementing with ways of
implementing the system throughout, the officials said.
The contract system is necessary because since April
1986, the State has ceased to allocate funds to the
ministry. Instead, it collects taxes from the ministry,
which can use its own profits to develop its own
operations, the officials said.
“That means we have to depend exclusively on ourselves
and that´s why we use the contract system to stimulate
workers initiative for higher turnovers.” One official
Although the contract system was practiced last year only
in its transport sector, the ministry was able to handle
3.7 per cent more cargo than in 1985.
In the first half of this year, the total volume of cargo
and passenger transport was up 2.4 and 6.5 per cent over
the same 1985 period, respectively, the officials reported.
Meanwhile, a feeder railway funded by famers in a village
in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, is expected to open to
traffic in October, according to the overseas edition of
Farmers in Xinhua village raised 2 million yuan(about
$540,000) to build a 600-metre feeder railway line to speed
up transport between urban and rural areas. (Xinhua)
Words and Expressions
Contract /´kɑn‚trækt/ n. 承包；契
Contract system 承包制，大包干
Administration /æd‚mini´streʃǝ n/ ǝ
Experiment /ik´spɛrǝ mǝ nt/
Implement /´implǝ mǝ nt/ v.t.实现
Cease /sis/ v.t.停止
Allocate /´ælǝ ‚ket/ v.t.分
Fund /fΛnd/ n.经费，资金
Tax /tæks/ n.税；税款
Profit /´prɑfit/ n.利润，赢利
Stimulate /´stimjǝ ‚let/ v.t.
Initiative /i´niʃǝ tiv/ n.首创
Turnover / /´tǝn‚ovǝ/ n.营业额
Sector /´sɛktǝ, -‚tȝr/ n.扇
Feeder /´fidǝ/ n.铁路支线；加
2. East railways to be upgraded
Railway lines in East China will be improved with an
investment of 7 billion yuan (about $1.89 billion), the
overseas edition of People´s Daily reported on Thursday.
The project involves 1.660 kilometers of railways, with
470 kilometers of new lines to be built, 510 kilometers to
be electrified and 680 kilometers double-tracked.
According to Zhou Congqing, the official in charge of the
project, more than 3,300hectares of land will be
requisitioned and many dwellings relocated.
Technicians are working on an engineering plan, and the
whole project is expected to be completed in1990.
Words and Expressions
Upgrade /´Λp‚ɡred/ Λ v.t.加强
In charge of 负责……；主管……
Hectare /´hɛk‚tɛr/ n.公顷
Requisition /‚rɛkwi´ziʃǝ n/ n.
Dwelling /´dwɛliŋ/ n.住房
Relocate /ri´loket/ v.t.搬迁
3. Rail capacity doubles
Each kilometers of railway in China carried 596.9 billion
tons of freight in the first six months of this year on
average, double that in1978.
Officials of the Railways Ministry said that the present
structure can hardly meet the needs of the developing
The ministry is now concentrating on expanding the
handling capacity of the existing railroads, while
constructing or upgrading new lines.
Among the 38 marshalling yards in China,28 have increased
the number of trains they send out every day by 10 to 30
per cent. The yards sent out 38,000 trains every day last
year, 15 per cent more than in the previous year.
Since April, the number of passenger and freight trains
has increased by 22 per cent and 20 per cent, respectively,
compared to 1978. Now passenger trains are capable of
transporting three million people a day.
The project to add a double-track along the line between
Hengyang in Hunan Province and Guangzhou is nearly
complete. And the project of expanding the railway network
Words and Expressions
Freight /fret/ n.货物
Average /´ævǝ riȝ, ´ævriȝ/ v n.
On average 按均值计算，平均
Marshalling/´mɑ:ʃǝ liŋ/ 排列，
Marshalling yard 编组场
To send……out 发出，寄出，放出
Improving railway operations
By Dr. techn., Prof. E.A. SOTNIKOV,
All-Union Railway Scientific Research Institute, Ministry
of Railways of the USSR
The Soviet Railways handle 52 per cent of the world´s
railway freight turn-over although they account only of
about 11 per cent of their total mileage. This determines
an extremely high traffic density of the lines exceeding 6
to 10 times and even more, similar values of the railways
of technically advanced countries.
In order to meet the requirements for handling constantly
growing volumes of traffic, apart from improving railway
equipment, reinforcing the tracks and raising the rolling
stock carrying capacities, the operational procedure has to
perfected as well, it has to attaining this overall goal is
the intensification of the utilization of the existing
technical means. In this report new trends improving
railway operations are discussed.
1 、Train Scheduling
The train schedule is the basis for managing train
traffic. It integrates the activities of all railway
services. Observing exactly the technological procedures
laid down for yards and stations, for locomotive and wagon
shops, for track, signaling and communication facilities as
well as for other railway bodies is a vital necessity for
trains being operated strictly to the schedule.
In order to keep the dispatchers staff informed on the
train situation data provided through the automatic traffic
control systems of the various railway regions is used.
Data on the availability of trains and locomotives at each
of the stations and at the classification yards of the
given route is submitted; to the dispatchers staff of the
upper control echelon in 3 hours intervals, to the
dispatchers staff of the railway region headquarters and of
the various sections on a continuous basis as the status at
the stations and yards changes.
This data is also taken into consideration at the railway
region border stations where the wagons are being
transferred from one railway region to the other. When
necessary, the data is used at other stations as well.
This makes it possible to monitor train traffic all along
the route, to make timely calculations with regard to
assigning locomotives to trains to reduce to the minimum
delays of trains waiting for motive power and to raise the
level of running trains strictly to the schedule.
The improvement of train operations requires further
development of the dispatcher control system through
further automating and centralizing the management of train
traffic. With regard to improving train operation the
following major principles have to be observed.
1. The activity of the train dispatchers which is at the
moment primarily concentrated at keeping records of the
train operations with a certain delay with regard to the
actual situation should pass over to a strategy of advanced
management using train operation forecast and of applying
optimized algorithms for wording out operational plans
covering foreseeable periods of future activities.
2. A continuous automated monitoring of possible
handicaps has to be introduced. This will enable the train
dispatchers staff by using the man-machine dialog mode of
operation to consider within several minutes a number of
managerial alternatives to choose the most effectives of
them to prevent minor handicaps form developing into major
3. The supply of information to the dispatchers staff has
to be automated using specific facilities developed for the
purpose, as well as data provided by the existing automated
operations management system. Presently the train
dispatchers spend 30 to 40% of their working time to
acquire this information. This will also make it possible
to automate accounting activity of train operations.
4. Based on using automated information systems and on
introducing up-to-date control equipment the routes covered
by the dispatchers at the sectional, regional and
ministerial levels should be extended, and traffic control
over long routes should be integrated.
5. Centralizing train dispatching control, setting up of
big dispatching centers equipped with modern means of
communication, computers and with automated consoles for
the dispatchers is of major importance. Such a control
console, for a sectional train dispatcher, for instance,
should consist of:
a multi-sectional panel with a colored presentation
of the section track lay-out or with the presentation of
the entire route indicating train numbers as well as other
data supplied by the computer;
a graphical display to keep the planned schedule;
an alphabetical display for the train dispatcher to
keep a dialog with the computer;
a printer for an automated record keeping of the
of a graph-plotting display for drawing a graph of
the actual train operation.
The introduction of new methods aimed at running the
trains strictly to the schedule will result in an overall
improvement of train operations.
Words and Expressions
Summary /´sΛmǝ ri/ n.摘要
Freight turn-over 货物周转量
To account of （数量上）占
Mileage /´mailiȝ/ n.里程
Traffic density 运输密度
Reinforce /‚riin´fȝrs, –
Rolling stock 机车车辆（有时
Rationalize /´ræʃǝ nǝ ‚laiz/ a
Means /mi:nz/ n.方法，手段；
Train scheduling 铺画列车运行
Integrate /´inti‚ɡret/ v.t.
Railway service 铁路业务；铁
Observe /ǝ b´zǝv/ v.t.观察，
To lay down 放下，使……躺下
Vital /´vaitl/ adj.非常的，
Dispatcher /dis´pætʃǝ/ n.列
To keep informed on 随时向
To submit to 向……提出……；
Echelon /´ɛʃǝ ‚lɑn/ 梯队，级
Dispatches staff of
Upper control echelon 上级调
Border station 分界站
To keep a record of 把……记
Algorithm /´ælɡǝ ‚riðǝ
Handicap /´hændi‚kæp/ n.不利
Man-machine dialog modle 人机
Accounting activcity 统计工作
Console /kǝ n´sol/ n.控制台
Multi-sectional panel 多个区
Presentation/‚prɛzǝ n´teʃǝ n,prizǝ n-
2.Increasing the weights and speeds of trains
Increasing the weights and speeds of trains is a major
factor in handling the constantly growing volume of traffic
.A variety of ways and means are used to raise the tonnage
and the length of trains.
First of all the length of the exisiting tracks must be
used to the full. With this in mind comprehensive measures
of the undertaken at present to raise the static weights of
the wagons by increasing the net weight of the commodity
being forwarded .The permissive axle load of the wagons has
been raised, a good share of bulky goods are forwarded in
disassembled status, the most rational way are use to
accommodate the good in the wagons ,the outer dimensions
set for the rolling stock at a given region are applied
since at use some extra space for loading cargo ,etc.
Making proper use some each and every meter of the
tracks is of substantial importance too. Applying computer
techniques in handling traffic made it possible to take
into account the length of each individual wagon rather
than of the types of wagons which was common practice
before. As a result one or two wagons were added to every
train. Likewise the length of each individual station
and/or yard track is taken into consideration: that
made it possible to make up trains that are longer than the
In case when the weight and the length of trains are
limited by the traction capacities of locomotives,
alternative standards are being introduced with regard to
the weights of trains. To handle trains with weights
exceeding the standard double locomotive traction, or
pusher locomotives are used on part of the route.
Often the length of the train is limited by the length of
station tracks rather than by limited tractive capacities
of the locomotives.On a number of railways trains are run
which are 20 to 25% longer than the station tracks can
accomodate. Also superlong trains are run on special
schedules that have been worked out in such a way that they
do not interfere with the presently of the other trains .15
to 20% of the trains presently operated on the main lines
exceed the standard length .
On high traffic density lines station and/or yard
tracks are being extended to provide for the operation of
long trains. As additional extended station tracks
are put into operation the number of long trains run on
special schedules is increased respectively.
The handling of jointed trains, that is doubled-up and
trippled-up trains up to 16000 tons heavy ,is of special
importance .Some of those trains even exceed that weight
.On April 18,1984,to quote one example , a 30220 ton train
4668 meters long was run over a distance of 1130 km from
the Ekibastus station to the Tobol station .
By raising the tonnage and the length of trains the
throughput capacity of lines is enhanced substantially .It
also makes it possible to allocate the time needed for
track maintenance and to cut down the operational
expenditures. Part of the system will be up-graded to
ensure the operation of jointed trains.
Long term measures are undertaken to raise the tonnage of
trains .Extending station tracks along certain axes,
putting 6-axe wagons into operation on a wide scale –those
are measures that should be mentioned first .The
utilization of 8-axle wagons will raise the per-meter of
load of the tracks up to 9.5-10.5 tons. Though this will be
attained only if the outer dimensions set for the rolling
stock is fully used by the industry when building the
Raising the per meter load of the tracks will result in
increasing the weight of standard 850metres long trains up
to 8000 tons and even up to 10000 tons if the station
tracks are extended to 1050 meter.
Passenger trains are made longer as well. For suburban
traffic ,trains are put into operation consisting of 12
coaches ,and on some directions doubled-up trains
consisting of 24 or 32 sleeping cars are planned to be
introduced .This will make it possible to handle the
growing volume of passenger train traffic.
Speeds of passenger trains are growing too .A high speed
train has been put into operation on the Moscow to
Leningrad line .Speeds of trains are being raised on other
lines as well, first of all on international lines .Since
in the USSR passenger and freight trains are run on the
same tracks it is important to raise the speeds of
both passenger and goods trains.
Introducing roller bearing axle-boxes on a larger scale
will contribute a great deal to an early attaining of this
Words and Expressions
the full 充分地 ，完全地
comprehensive /‚kɑmpri´hɛnsiv/ adj.理解
comprehensive measures 综合措施
undertake /‚Λndǝ´tek/ v.t.承担，着手，
static /´stætik/ adj.静态的，静止的
static weight 静载重
net /nɛt/ adj. 纯净的
net weight 净重
commodity /kǝ ´mɑditi/ n. 商品，货物
forward /´fȝrwǝ d/ adj. 向前的；v.t
促进；发送 permissive /pǝ´misiv/ adj. 允许的
axle load /´æksǝ l,´æksl/ 轴重
wagon /´wæɡǝ n/ n. 货车
share /ʃɛr/ n. 份额，部分
a good share of …… 大部分……
bulky /´bΛlki /adj. 体积大的
bulky goods 笨重货物
disassemble /‚disǝ ´sɛmbǝ l/ v.t. 分散，拆散
accommodate /ǝ ´kɑmǝ ‚det/ v.t. 供应，供给
substantial sǝ b´stænʃǝ l/ adj. 实
际的，重大的 likewise /´laik‚waiz/ adv.
double locomotive traction 双机牵引
pusher locomotive 补机
superlong train 超长列车
doubled-up train 双列组合列车
trippled-up train 三列组合列车
throughput /´θru‚put/ n. 生产量；通过量
thoughput capacity 通过能力
enhance /ɛn´hæns/ v.t. 提高
expenditure /ik´spɛndǝ tʃǝ/ n. 交出，费用
Applying computer techniques in handling traffic made
it possible to take into account the length of each
individual wagon rather than of the types of wagons which
was common practive before.